Answered by Shaykh Yūsuf Badāt
Is hashish (marijuana) smoking ḥarām (prohibited) or makrūh (disliked)? Please give exact details because I have a lot of friends who smoke hashish/ marijuana but at the same time have the passion to perform prayers. We would like to know if hashish is ḥarām or makrūh and can we pray after we have smoked?
Thank you for your question.
What is Marijuana/ Hashish?
Hashish is considered a harmful drug. According to the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, hashish is described as follows:
“Cannabis is somewhat like tobacco—a greenish or brownish substance that’s made by drying the flowering, fruiting tops and leaves of the plant Cannabis Sativa. Cannabis is known by many names including: marijuana, weed, hash—and others. Cannabis is often smoked as a “joint” or by using a water pipe or “bong” (where the smoke is drawn through water before inhaling it to cool it and filter out small particles)” (Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse).
According to CCSA:
“A growing body of research evidence suggests that using cannabis could negatively affect different aspects of people’s lives, including:
- Mental and physical health
- Cognitive functioning (skills such as memory, attention span and psychomotor speed)
- Ability to drive a motor vehicle
- Health and development of children born to those who use cannabis.”
Islamic Ruling on Marijuana
Hence the use of such a substance that is detrimental to one’s health is considered ḥarām (prohibited) or in the least makrūh taḥrīmi (prohibitively disliked, meaning very close to ḥarām) by majority jurists, especially when such substances are used in vain or leisure.
Imam al Dhahabi, Ibn Ḥajar al Asqalānī and Ibn Taymiyah have declared the use of hashish as ḥarām. Imam Ibn Ḥajar al Haythamī mentions that smoking hashish is ḥarām according to all four schools of Islamic jurisprudence. (See Fatāwa wa Rasāil)
“Do not put yourselves into destruction, and do good. Of course, Allāh loves those who do good” (Qur’ān 2:195)
“Every intoxicant is khamr (wine) and every khamr is ḥaram (prohibited)” (Saḥīḥ Muslim)
Prayer is not valid while one is in a state of intoxication or impurity. If one has used a prohibited substance, they should purify themselves and be out of the intoxication, prior to the ritual prayer.
Using marijuana for medical purposes is only permitted if there is no other islamicaly permissible alternative medication to treat the ailment. In general circumstances, it is forbidden to use marijuana for medicine. The Messenger (peace and blessings upon him) said,
“Allāh has not placed your cure in prohibited things” (Bukhārī)
However, in the situation, where there is genuinely no ḥalāl alternative, it is permissible to benefit from such medical marijuana up to the extent of the need. Medical experts must have prescribed it, when nothing else is useful for the treatment. A well-known principle in Islamic jurisprudence is “Dire necessities permit the prohibited’. Sanctity and the saving of one’s life overrides the prohibition. This is why eating pork becomes permissible if there is no other food one can find.
Allāh Almighty states,
“He has spelled out to you all that He has made unlawful for you, except that to which you are compelled by extreme necessity. Surely, there are many who misguide people on the basis of their desires without having knowledge. Surely, your Lord is the best Knower of those who cross the limits.” (Qurʿān 6:119)
The intellectual giant, Sh. Ashraf ‘Alī Thānwī (may Allāh’s mercy be with him) also indicates this ruling in his famous manual, ‘Bahishtī Zewar’ – Heavenly Ornaments.
May Allāh keep us pure, healthy and away from all harmful substances through His infinite mercy.
And Allāh Knows Best.
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